Wenge Wood - Definition, Characteristics and Benefits of Wenge
(scientifically called Millettia Laurentii,Millettia spp., or Millettia stuhlmannii ( panga-panga)) is an endangered wood type
originating from Central Africa. With the ability to grow to the size of
18-27 meters with around 1 meters of trunk diameter, the Wedge wood has
managed to attract significant acclaim around the world for its strength, durability, and resistance to termite attacks.
While it is today most commonly used for the
creation of veneer, paneling, furniture, turned objects, and high-end
, it’s presence on the market is dwindling because of the lack of new
Millettia laurentii is today placed on IUCN Red List and
is regarded as an endangered. Over the last three
generations of trees, over 50% of its total population has been harvested.
What is Wenge Wood
Wedge wood is an exotic lumber species that is harvested
from the Central and West African tree called Millettia Laurentii,
and several other closely related tree types. It is known under names of
African rosewood, faux ebony, dikela, mibotu, bokonge, and awong.
Thanks to its natural oils and structure, wedge wood
durability without any need for this lumber to be treated with physical
or chemical processes
. Since it is extremely durable, dense and tough, and therefore very useful
in creation of floor panelling, furniture, high end walking canes
(handholds or entire canes), and musical instrument that
are built to last (including instruments created by Mosrite, Ibanez, Court,
Warwick, Conklin Guitars, Yamaha and more). Other popular uses of wenge
wood are in segmented woodturning, where wenge wood can be shaped into any
form that creator desires. Additionally, since its strength and durability,
some bow manufacturers use wenge to create various models of flatbows.
Sadly, the rise in popularity of this type of lumber have led to the increase of exploitation, harvesting, and shrinking of the
natural range of Millettia Laurentii population across Africa. During the
last few decades of 20th century, the population of this tree was reduced
significantly, which prompted the International Union for Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources to mark this tree as an endangered species. If
you are considering purchasing large quantities of Wenge lumber for your
hardwood floor, consider the environmental impact of such decision.
In addition to its strength and durability, one of the defining
characteristics of wenge wood is its color and appearance. Wenge wood
showcases deep and rich chocolate brown colors that are
interwoven with black lines. The dark and distinctive “wenge” wood color is today used as a
standardized color in many coloring systems around the world
. As for its texture, tan lines can be present alongside the black texture
lines depending on the way the lumber was cut. With a simple oil finish,
wenge wood can be made to look almost perfectly black, making it as a
viable alternative of ebony. Grain of this wood is straight, predictable
and pleasing to the eye. Lumber from wenge wood exhibits very uniform
color, and over the period of just a few months after cutting its entire
surface slowly shifts to darker deep chocolate/black brown hues.
While the majority of the Millettia laurentii trees can reach 25-30 meters
in height, few exceptional trees can continue growing all up to 50 meters.
In such trees, up to 20 meters of the trunk can be uninterrupted and
without the presence of any side branches. Such examples of trees are
highly valued. During spring and summer, entire tree transforms with the
growth of flowers that are colored in striking purple-blue color. Tree
bark, leaves and other parts of the tree are also valued locally as medical
remedies or even production of arrow and fish poison. Since this wood is so
dense, it cannot float on water.
While this tree is sometimes used for ornamental purposes, much of its use
has been delegated to the woodworking industry, which has sadly placed this
tree on IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 2011.
Millettia Laurentiiis is a tree of the legume family (known scientifically
as Fabaceae or Papilionoideae), which is distinguished by flowering,
colorful leaves, and fruit. It is natively found in Central and West
Africa, including countries such as Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic
of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, and Gabon.
While it is most often called Wenge wood in the developed world, this wood
is also called African rosewood (ambiguous), likely, mibotu, Palisandre Du
Congo, bokonge, and awong and faux ebony (because of its ability to very
quickly be transformed in black color).
Tree Size - 60-90 ft (18-27 m) tall
Trunk Diameter - 3-4 ft (1-1.2 m)
Janka Hardness - 1,930 lbf (8,600 N)
Average Dried Weight - 54 lbs/ft3 (870 kg/m3)
Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC) - .72, .87
Crushing Strength - 11,710 lbf/in2 (80.7 MPa)
Modulus of Rupture - 21,990 lbf/in2 (151.7 MPa)
Elastic Modulus - 2,550,000 lbf/in2 (17.59 GPa)
Shrinkage - Radial: 4.8%, Tangential: 8.1%, Volumetric: 12.9%, T/R Ratio:
Odor - Faint and slightly bitter scent, only present during cutting and
Workability - Difficult. Can blunt tool edges, is sanded unevenly, can be
easily splintered, and can be difficult to be perfectly smoothed out.
Texture - Coarse texture, straight and even grain, and with low and natural
Sustainability - Marked as a part of IUCN Red List as an endangered
Required growth density - No specific requirements for growth density
Drying - Slow
Durability - Very durable. Naturally resistant to rot and termite attack.
Maintenance - Low
Cost - Expensive, with rising prices due increased unavailability
This exotic wood type from central and west Africa is today used less and
less. However, because of its excellent durability, structure, and visual
aesthetics that make it one of the most premier dark species (which can be
used both as a standalone material or paired with lighter wood types),
wenge continues to be in high demand even though its price is surging due
to rising availability of fresh timber.
Since it is highly resistant to scratching and abrasion and the ability to
take a very high polish and smoothness, it is preferred wood for flooring
blocks or strips, construction, and exterior use.
Here are some of the most common use case scenarios for wenge wood:
Various interior and exterior projects
High-end decorative furniture
Heavy construction (mine props, railway sleepers and more)
Indoor and outdoor furniture
Musical instruments (especially guitars)
Various novelty objects made from wood
Wood sculptures and face masks
Wooden objects that aim to replace ebony
Wenge wood is known not only for its visual appeal, color, and rich
partridge wood pattern but also for its medicinal purposes in traditional medicine of Central Africa. The bark of
millettia laurentii is used for the creation of remedies that
treat diabetes, skin issues, fever, rheumatism, hernia, liver
complains, constipation and more. It is also reported that it can be used for the creation of
remedies for reducing sores, smallpox, epilepsy, abscesses and more.
Modern scientific studies have confirmed
the presence of several isoflavones and alkaloids in its bark and seed.
Some of its components also have insecticidal properties
Its stem cuttings are also widely used for the creation of cultivated live
fence, and formerly cultivated land can be restored using millettia
laurentii as one of the first pioneer plants. Bees also frequent this tree,
which benefits production of honey.
High list of positives cannot hide some disadvantages of wenge wood. Since
it is so strong, it can actually very easily blunt woodworking tools and
can be very hard for manual hand cutting and polishing. Non-carbide tools
that are used for cutting of wenge wood are in need of constant sharpening,
and sanding attempts that are not sanitized quickly can become ingrained
due to the effect of internal oils that quickly harden the wood surface.
Staining can also be an issue.
One of the biggest problems during wenge wood cutting is the poisonous effect of its dust. Wenge dust is well
documented in its ability to cause both dermatological and respiratory
allergic reactions, including strong flare-ups. Breathing of wenge sawdust
can cause a wide variety of medical issues such as irritation of eyes,
abdominal cramps and more. Cuts made from wenge splinters do not heal
quickly and have the higher chance of causing infections than splinters
from almost any commonly used wood types in woodworking.